What were the main climate agreements and what are COP's?
18.05.2023 - 17hs

What were the main climate agreements and what are COP's?

Understand more about what were the main milestones in the regulation and targets for reducing Global warming.

What are the major climate treaties and what are COPs?

The most important climate treaties, in chronological order, include:

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): This is the international treaty adopted in 1992 that establishes international cooperation to address climate change. The goal is to establish a global response to climate change.

Kyoto Protocol: The first global agreement to combat climate change, signed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005. The Protocol sets greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for some 37 industrialized countries. Doha Agreement for the Kyoto Protocol: Signed in 2012 with the aim of extending the emission reduction targets set out in the Kyoto Protocol.

Paris Agreement: Signed in 2015 and entered into force in 2016. It is a universal and ambitious agreement to combat climate change, with the objective of limiting the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to strive to keep it below 1.5°C.

These agreements are essential for raising awareness of climate change and encouraging joint efforts to combat it. They provide a framework for countries and companies that are committed to reducing their greenhouse gas emissions.

What are COPs?


COP stands for "Conference of the Parties" and is an acronym used to refer to the annual meetings of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These meetings are held to assess progress in the fight against climate change and to discuss new measures to combat global warming.


At the COP, participating countries discuss issues such as greenhouse gas emission reduction targets, financing for developing countries, adaptation to climate change, and clean technologies. The COP is also an opportunity for countries and non-state actors to showcase innovative solutions and be recognized for their efforts in the fight against global climate change. The first COP was held in 1995 and has since been held annually, each year in a different host city. The most recent COP was COP27, which was held in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt in 2022.

The following is a list of the Conferences of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and their locations:

COP1 - Berlin, Germany (1995)
COP2 - Geneva, Switzerland (1996)
COP3 - Kyoto, Japan (1997)
COP4 - Buenos Aires, Argentina (1998)
COP5 - Bonn, Germany (1999)
COP6 - The Hague, Netherlands (2000) 

COP7 - Marrakesh, Morocco (2001)
COP8 - Delhi, India (2002)
COP9 - Milan, Italy (2003)
COP10 - Buenos Aires, Argentina (2004)
COP11 - Montreal, Canada (2005)
COP12 - Nairobi, Kenya (2006)
COP13 - Bali, Indonesia (2007)
COP14 - Poznan, Poland (2008)
COP15 - Copenhagen, Denmark (2009)
COP16 - Cancun, Mexico (2010)
COP17 - Durban, South Africa (2011)
COP18 - Doha, Qatar (2012)
COP19 - Warsaw, Poland (2013)
COP20 - Lima, Peru (2014)
COP21 - Paris, France (2015)
COP22 - Marrakesh, Morocco (2016)
COP23 - Bonn, Germany (2017)
COP24 - Katowice, Poland (2018)
COP25 - Madrid, Spain (2019)
COP26 - Glasgow, Scotland (2021)
COP27 - Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt (2022)

Next stop: COP28, United Arab Emirates - among the past and the the future.

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